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Cover of Oilseeds Focus Vol 2 No 4 September 2016

 
> RESEARCH PROJECTS > DEVELOPMENT PLANS > CANOLA > Development Plan 2014
PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINKS BELOW TO VIEW EACH FILE
 
.. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2014 .. .. ONTWIKKELINGSPLAN 2014 ..
DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR CANOLA 2014
Dr J de Kock
The biggest scientists are always artists too.
ALBERT EINSTEIN


To discover, one must be able to see, to see is a type of sixth sense, a gift.
PIERRE CANNE – The Great Collector


Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
GEORGE SANTAYANA


The farming community renders the bravest of men, the most fearless of soldiers
and a type of civilian that does not cultivate evil.
CATO THE ELDER


USE THE LINKS BELOW TO QUICKLY JUMP TO THAT SECTION ...

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

TECHNOLOGY PLAN

 

2.1

Programme: Cultivar Development

 

2.2

Programme: Cultivation practices

 

2.3

Programme: Plant nutrition

 

2.4

Programme: Weed control

 

2.5

Programme: Plant diseases

 

2.6

Programme: Insect control

 

2.7

Programme: Harvesting techniques

 

2.8

Programme: Quality aspects

 

2.9

Programme: Economic aspects

 

2.10

Programme: Animal utilisation of products

3.

MANPOWER PLAN

4.

PROMOTION: CANOLA PRODUCTION

5.

SUMMARY

1.

INTRODUCTION
 

  • The PRF is a Trust that acts in terms of a trust deed. The trust deed determines that available funds may be used to expand and increase the production and more efficient utilisation of protein for animal feed, in an effort to replace imported protein.
  • The PRF decided, inter alia, to implement its mandate by focusing on soybeans and canola. Previous work relating to faba beans and lupins was suspended because there was no growth in the production of these commodities.
  • Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically improved oilseed turnip (rape) with low levels of erucic acid and glucosinolate. The name, canola, is the name registered by the Western Canadian Oilseed Crushers Association and is derived from Canada and oleic acid. (See Growing Western Canola: Department of Agriculture, Government of Western Australia, May 2006). According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Moffen Company, updated in 2009, the name was derived from Canada oil low acid. There are other indications of the origins of the derived name too, but the official, registered name is Canola.
  • There are various other Brassica species too, the most important being Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea.
  • Canola is the second largest oilseed crop in the world, currently contributing about 14% of the total world oilseed production. The total world production is estimated at about 70 million tonnes.
  • Canola seed contains between 36 and 46% oil, as well as 20 to 24% protein. Canola oilcake contains about 35% protein.
  • Canola may be used with significant benefit, in both full fat and oilcake form, in animal feeds.
  • Currently, South Africa imports more than half its oil and oilcake requirements from other countries every year. Each year for the past six years, more than 70% of the oilcake requirements have been imported.
  • Canola is a relatively new crop in South Africa. In 1992/93, only 400 tonnes canola grain was produced, compared to 41 000 in 2003/2004, 38 150 in 2007/2008, 57 340 tonnes in 2011/12 and 79 000 tonnes in 2013/2014.
  • Canola may be grown in all areas where wheat is grown in South Africa.
  • Currently canola is grown in South Africa on about 60 000 ha. In the Western Cape alone this area may be expanded to about +75 000 ha by 2015. In June 2013 a study by Dr MB Hardy and MG Wallace showed that 743 500 ha in the Western Cape is suitable for growing canola (Hardy MB and Wallace MG, June 2013. Determining the area of arable land suited to canola production in the Western Cape. Department of Agriculture, Western Cape). The area to be planted under canola each year will be calculated taking into account aspects such as rotation crops, diseases, other crops etc.
  • The areas under irrigation that may be suitable for canola production are:
     
    AREA TOTAL AREA ROUNDED OFF IN HECTARES (ha)
    1. Vaalharts 30 000
    2. Rietrivier / Modderrivier 18 000
    3. Hopetown / Luckhof 24 000
    4. Douglas 24 000
    5. Barkley West 12 000
    6. Prieska / Marydale 14 000
    TOTAL 122 000
    Source: Griekwaland-West Co-operative (GWK) – 2011

    About 50 percent of the area (about 61 000 ha) is currently under winter crops.
     
    Areas (hectares) under irrigation in the northern irrigation areas suitable for canola production.
     
    AREA TOTAL AREA ROUNDED OFF IN HECTARES (ha)
    1. Hartebeespoort Irrigation Council 13 211
    2. Crocodile River Irrigation Council 14 000
    3. Loskop Dam (Groblersdal / Marble Hall) 23 190
    TOTAL 50 401
    Source: Allgro Seed Company – 2011

    About 29 500 of the 50 401 ha is used annually for winter crops.
     
    This means that about 172 401 ha is used annually for winter crops in both the central and northern irrigation areas. Depending on the rotation system, it is possible to produce about 3,5 tonnes per hectare, 160 000 tonnes and more canola each year.
  • The possibility of growing canola on dry land and on a large scale in the Eastern Cape and Free State, for the production of biodiesel, is currently being investigated by various institutes. Should this be realised, the total production could increase significantly.
  • Canola has good biofumigation characteristics, which may be used successfully to combat root diseases of crops like wheat and it could combat the presence of nematodes. As a rotation crop, it could present significant advantages.
  • Root-rot (Take all) caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis and foot-rot (Fusarium) are serious diseases that affect wheat, while nematodes, particularly root-knot nematodes, caused by Meloidogyne spp, especially in sandy soils, severely hamper growing crops such as soybeans. The benefits of canola as a rotation crop could be utilised with significant advantages.
  • Canola is a winter crop and may be included with good results in any crop rotation system to avoid problems including those mentioned above.
  • There are indications that the allelopathic effects of canola could be detrimental to crops planted immediately after canola, particularly where irrigation is available. Under such conditions, there should be a waiting period before planting the next crop.
  • According to estimates, most success has been achieved in winter rainfall areas, followed by the central irrigation areas of South Africa. Areas like the north-western area of KwaZulu-Natal where farmers use pivot irrigation systems and other irrigation areas in the interior may also be suitable for canola production. At present this technology plan is aimed mainly at the winter rainfall area.
  • Technology transfer is one of the most important factors in promoting canola cultivation and to this end the PRF supports the involvement of certain researchers in the Department of Agriculture, Western Cape (DAWC), in the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) and at the University of Stellenbosch (US) in promoting canola cultivation, particularly as a rotation crop.
  • Currently, information on canola cultivation is available from about 38 projects (finalised and current), but this is far from sufficient. Drastic steps are required to deploy more manpower at the various institutes currently working with canola. The number of institutes involved also needs to be increased.
  • Apart from the animal feed value of canola, the oil is of a high quality, suitable for human consumption and is recommended by the Heart Foundation. The oil may be improved further by developing high oleic acid canola. Indications are that such oil is extremely suitable for deep frying in restaurants and commercial kitchens. The oil is more stable than conventional canola oil and has a saturated fatty acid content of less than 7%. Since 1997 various % companies in Canada and in Europe have developed high oleic acid canola cultivars. Also in 1997, the Australian Oilseeds Federation (AOF) launched large-scale programmes to develop healthier cooking oils for the market. In South Africa the canola industry is relatively young and small. A transition to high oleic acid canola should therefore be considered only if a similar or higher yield could be achieved per hectare. As the quality of conventional canola oil is good, South Africa should focus initially on increasing output as a means of expanding the industry.
  • GM canola should be made available in South Africa to improve weed control using alternative chemicals and improve areas under canola.
  • According to the Canola Council of Canada (CCC) the protein fraction of canola is affected by genetic modification (GM), but not the oil. The oil, supported by the Heart Foundation, is therefore the same as for canola that has not been genetically modified.
  • Canola oil is also sought-after for the production of biodiesel, because of the desirably low solidification temperature, especially beneficial in the cold European winters.

2.

TECHNOLOGY PLAN

Canola is a relatively new crop in South Africa. Research institutes (even the government, excluding the Department of Agriculture in the Western Cape) initially paid little or no attention to the crop. Based on the desirable characteristics of canola, particularly the high protein content in the oilcake, the PRF decided to fund canola research with the aim of enhancing the practical application by producers and users, and by first addressing only the most important aspects. The research plan is divided into the following programmes:

  • Cultivar development
  • Cultivation practices
  • Plant nutrition
  • Weed control
  • Plant diseases
  • Insect control
  • Harvesting techniques
  • Quality aspects
  • Economic aspects
  • Utilisation of products by animals

 

2.1

Programme: Cultivar Development

Cultivar Development may be divided into the following projects:

  • Introduction of new cultivars.
  • Building and maintaining the germ plasm bank.
  • Breeding new cultivars aimed at local agronomic requirements, disease and insect resistance, as well as quality requirements.
  • Evaluation and characterisation of cultivars for the best acclimatisation and production under local conditions (dry land, as well as irrigation).

 

 

2.1.1

Project: Introduction of new cultivars

Prior to 2009 there were no projects in this category. Three seed companies (K2 Agri, Agricol and Pioneer) introduced new cultivars for testing as part of the cultivar evaluation projects.

Based on recommendations during a study tour of Australia in 2008 the PRF Board decided to investigate the possibility of using an independent institute, such as the Department of Agriculture: Western Cape (DAWC), to provide facilities for testing lines brought into the country by the PRF before releasing the lines as cultivars in the market. The DAWC agreed and approved the first project. The trial planting, funded by the PRF, started in 2010.

Now the canola industry in South Africa depends largely on Australian seed companies to provide new cultivars. These companies are:

  • Pioneer
  • Nu Seed
  • Pacific Seeds
  • Canola Breeders Western Australia (CBWA) which was dissolved in 2013, but the growing programme continues at the University of Western Australia, funded from outside and with the support of a German company, NPZ-Lemke.

From Germany, Bayer is making available cultivars for evaluation in canola elite trials at the DAWC.

Seed companies are willing to allow testing and evaluation of cultivars and lines in South Africa before release. The testing and evaluation is done by the DAWC, also tasked with National Cultivar trials with the support of the PRF.

Currently the following types are being developed:

  • Conventional canola
    Brassica napus has a low erucic acid content (less than 2%) in the oil and a low glucosinolate content (less than 30 micromoles per gram) in the oilcake.
  • TT Canola
    Triazine resistant canola (Brassica napus). The triazine resistance (atrazine and simazine) was developed using conventional plant breeding methods. This type may be used if the control of resistant weeds is a problem.
  • CL Canola (Clearfield type)
    This canola type (Brassica napus) resists Cysure (imasamox). This resistance was also developed using conventional plant breeding methods. This type may also be used to control resistant weeds.
  • Genetically modified canola
    Internationally there is a glyphosate (RoundupReady®) resistant canola (Brassica napus) and a gluphosinate-ammonia (LibertyLink®) resistant canola available. Genetically modified (GM) canola offers alternative chemical options for growing this crop in areas where resistant weeds need to be controlled.
     
    This type of canola is not yet available in South Africa.
  • High oleic acid canola (Monola)
    This type of canola (Brassica napus) produces healthier oil. The name Monola is currently being used by Nu Seed to distinguish it from ordinary canola.
     
    Canola oil is one of the healthiest oils available and is supported by the Heart Foundation. However, it is possible to improve the health value further, and Nu Seed have developed Monola, which offers the following improvements:
     
    Ordinary canola contains:
    Oleic acid 60%
    Linoleic acid 20%
    Linolenic acid 12%

    Monola contains:
    Oleic acid 66%
    Linoleic acid 18%
    Linolenic acid 3%
  • Juncea canola
    Brassica juncea has been developed using conventional plant breeding methods to produce quality characteristics (oil and oilcake) similar to canola. Allegedly, this type is more disease resistant, with a lower shattering rate. The flour is yellow and could be used in a canine food niche market.

 

 

 

2.1.1.1

Project: Evaluation of advanced canola material in the Western Cape
Researcher: Mr PJA Lombard
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape (DAWC)

  • Objectives
     

    Determine grain yield for each entry under conditions at Langgewens (Swartland) and Tygerhoek (Rûens).
     

    Determine number of days from planting to flowering and physiological maturity.
     

    Determine disease incidence for each entry.
     

    Evaluate elite material before entry in the National Cultivar Trials.
     

  • General
     

    Institutes are invited to submit about 12 entries for evaluation during the elite trials, before entry in the National Cultivar Trials.
     

    New lines/cultivars could therefore be made available sooner for commercial growing in South Africa.
     

    In 2010 this project was handled for the first time as an independent project and entries were received from:
     
    a)   Agricol (representing Nu Seed and Canola Breeders Western Australia)
    b)   Pacific Seed
    c)   Pioneer
     

    In 2011, Pacific Seed submitted entries.
     

    This project is progressing well. A number of lines tested in the 2010 elite trials were introduced for the first time in 2011 in Australia (see webpage study dated May 2011) and were entered in the South African National Cultivar Trials. The gap between early availability of cultivars in Australia and South Africa is therefore diminishing.
     

    As the DAWC now conducts an elite trial in which entries submitted by companies are evaluated, the joint PRF Canola Elite Trial was terminated in 2011.
     

    The PRF has submitted entries by PacSeed and Bayer for evaluation in the DAWC trial.

 

 

2.1.2

Project: Germ plasm bank

 

 

 

There are no current projects relating to this aspect. This project will be developed only once a breeding project is initiated. At the moment this is not a consideration.
 

 

 

2.1.3

Project: Breeding new cultivars

 

 

 

The scope of the South African industry does not warrant further development of this project. Currently we do not have sufficient, suitable manpower available to handle any development in this regard. The industry is too small to justify such a project.

We currently rely on the evaluation of cultivars introduced from other countries before making these available in South Africa (see Project 2.1.1.1).
 

 

 

2.1.4

Project: Evaluation and characterisation of cultivars

 

 

 

This project is essential for promoting any industry and forms the basis of impartial recommendations to producers. The following two projects are under way:
 

 

 

 

2.1.4.1

Project: Cultivar evaluation of oil and protein seeds in the winter rainfall region
Researcher: Mr PJA Lombard
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape (DAWC)

  • Objectives
     

    Determine grain yield for each entry under different circumstances in various environments in the Western Cape (Swartland, Rûens and South Western Districts).
     

    Determine the number of days from planting to flowering for each entry.
     

    Observe disease incidence for each entry.
     

    Determine oil and protein content of each cultivar.
     

  • General
     

    Twelve to twenty entries, of which four to six are tested annually.
     

    This project is progressing well. Results of cultivar evaluations are published annually in Canola Focus and on the PRF web page / database.
     

    Producers use the results to select cultivars.
     

 

 

 

2.1.4.2

Project: An agronomical evaluation of canola in the summer rainfall area
Researcher: Dr AA Nel
Institution: ARC-GCI

  • Objectives
     

    Determine grain yield and growth patterns of locally available cultivars at various places under irrigation in the summer rainfall area.
     

    Observe disease incidence for each cultivar under irrigation.
     

    Determine the oil and protein content of each cultivar.
     

  • General
     

    This project was discontinued at the end of 2007 and the final report was submitted in 2008. The reason for discontinuation was a lack of manpower.
     

    Yields of more than 4 tonnes per hectare were obtained.
     

    The project may be reinstated in future.

 

 

2.1.5

Summary

  • Evaluation of cultivars in South Africa receives considerable attention.
  • Cultivar recommendations for the Western Cape are published annually (February) in Canola Focus and are sent to producers.
  • Allgro (company) has conducted cultivar trials under irrigation since 2010 at Groblersdal, Brits (Beestekraal) and Vaalharts. The trials show good yield results. Other cultivation aspects such as plant population density, crop rotation, fertilisation etc., needs to be investigated too.
  • The following were reconsidered:
     

    During a study tour of Australia in 2010, it was discovered that there has been a rapid move internationally to the use of hybrid canola, with all types being affected. The PRF Board decided that South Africa should adopt this approach and focus on promoting hybrids to achieve higher grain yields per hectare.
     

    At the moment most of the entries submitted for evaluation at the National Cultivar Trials are hybrid cultivars obtained from conventional canola, CL canola and TT canola types.
     

    In addition, it was observed that GM canola is being used increasingly in Australia and other countries. The PRF Board decided that tests involving these types of canola should enjoy priority, the aims being to expand the area under canola in South Africa and to introduce more effective weed control by implementing an approach involving integrated weed control management (see 2.4) using various chemical substances.

 

2.2

Programme: Cultivation practices
These programmes include a number of aspects such as:

  • Soil preparation
  • Planting date
  • Planting methods
  • Plant density
  • Planting depth
  • Row width
  • Crop rotation

The programmes also include any combination of these aspects such as:

  • Planting date x plant density etc.

Information is available on the following projects:
 

 

 

2.2.1

Project: Optimal row width and sowing density of canola
Researcher: Prof GA Agenbag
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the optimum row width and sowing density of two types of canola cultivars at various places in the Western Cape.
     

    Determine the effects of row width on the seed size (thousand-kernel mass in gram) for two types of cultivars.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2005.
     

    Results available on PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.2.2

Project: Chemical seed treatment of canola and lupins for control of seedling diseases and insects
Researchers: Prof GA Agenbag, Dr SC Lamprecht
Institution: Stellenbosch University and ARC PPRI

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the effects of seedling diseases and early insect damage on establishing plants, survival and production of canola at various plant densities and row widths.
     

    Determine the efficacy of chemical seed treatments of canola.
     

    Determine the effects of climatic factors on the efficacy of chemical seed treatment and possible phytotoxic effects on canola.
     

    The development of a seed treatment strategy for canola in the winter rainfall area.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2005.
     

    Results published in Canola Focus and included on PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.2.3

Project: An agronomic evaluation of canola in the summer rainfall area
Researcher: Dr AA Nel
Institution: ARC-GCI

  • Objectives
     

    Determine grain yield and growth patterns of canola planted on different dates at different sites.
     

    Determine oil and protein content of canola planted on different dates in the summer rainfall area.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2004.
     

    Results available on PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.2.4

Project: The salt tolerance of canola
Researcher: Prof GA Agenbag
Institution: University of Stellenbosch

  • Objective
     

    Determine the salt concentration in the soil that could damage canola.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2007.
     

    Results available on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.2.5

Project: Promotion of canola as a rotation crop in conservation farming in the Swartland and Rûens by means of a competition for producers
Researchers: Mr JG Loubser, Mr IFV Slabbert
Institution: Protein Research Foundation and Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objectives
     

    Promoting canola production by encouraging producers to compete for the highest grain yield and best gross margin.
     

    Identify problems relating to achievement of highest grain yields in the Western Cape.
     

    Technology transfer through visits by farmer groups to participants in the competition to discuss practices applied.
     

  • General
     

    Full results are published annually in a publication distributed to canola producers.
     

    Ensures information distribution to all.
     

    The nature of the project, particularly the method of reporting, is currently under review.

 

 

2.2.6

Project: An investigation into the production dynamics of eight crop rotation systems, including wheat, lupins, canola and pasture species in the Swartland, Western Cape
Researchers: Dr MB Hardy, Dr J Strauss
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objective
     

    Determine the short- and long-term effects of eight of the most appropriate crop rotation systems in the Swartland on crop yield, weed control, disease suppression, production potential and economically sustainable use of land.
     

  • General
     

    Inclusion of canola in the crop rotation system contributes to a marked increase in the wheat grain yield.
     

    Progress reports are published annually and summaries are included on the PRF web page / database.
     

    PRF terminated its support of this project in 2011.

 

 

2.2.7

Project: Economic sustainability of short and long rotation production systems in the Southern Cape
Researchers: Dr MB Hardy, Dr J Strauss
Institution:Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objective
     

    Determine the short- and long-term effects of various crop rotation systems in the Rûens area on crop yield, weed control, disease suppression, production potential and economically sustainable use of land.
     

  • General
     

    Inclusion of canola in the crop rotation system contributes to a marked increase in the wheat grain yield.
     

    Annual progress reports are included on the PRF web page / database.
     

    There has been a positive influence of canola on the yield of other crops.
     

    PRF terminated support of this project in 2011.

 

 

2.2.8

Project: Evaluation of shortened canola production periods and the use of alternative crops on the sustainability of winter grain production under conservation agricultural practices in the Riversdale flats
Researcher: Dr J Strauss
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objectives
     

    Evaluation of six crop rotation systems that include canola at differing frequencies.
     

    Agronomic data will be collected to compare systems.
     

    Financial data will be collected per system.
     

    Disease data will be recorded per system.
     

  • General
     

    Project started in 2012.
     

    Waiting for progress report.

 

 

2.2.9

Project: Evaluation of crop rotation with canola under irrigation
Researcher: Dr AA Nel
Institution: ARC-GCI

  • Objectives
     

    Investigate the effects of canola on the yield of follow-up crops, including the effects of crop rotation on canola yield.
     

    Determine the scope of nematode suppression by canola by measuring the scope of nematode infestation of all crops.
     

    Determine the effects of canola and the other crops on disease incidence.
     

    Compare the financial achievement of the various crop rotation systems.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2007.
     

    There were indications that crops established immediately after harvesting canola are negatively affected. Possible reasons include allelopathy of canola on other crops or the biofumigation effect.
     

    Results are available on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.2.10

Project: The identification of soil parameters as indicators of sustainable dry-land crop production systems for the shale-derived soils of the Western Cape: tillage practice, crop rotation, soil quality and crop production
Researcher: Dr J Labuschagne
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objectives
     

    Evaluate effects of no till, minimum till and conventional till on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil within different crop rotation systems.
     

    Evaluate and demonstrate the effects of various tillage practices and crop rotation systems on the production and quality of crops such as canola, wheat, lupins and medics as well as the use thereof as weed control options.
     

  • General
     

    Progress summary is available on the PRF web page / database. Results shown are for four years.
     

    PRF terminated its support for this project in 2011.

 

 

2.2.11

Summary

  • Additional crop rotation studies are needed to verify the results of project 2.2.8.
  • More crop rotation systems involving canola in shorter than four-year frequencies are required. Strict monitoring of diseases, particularly blackleg, is required in such systems.
  • Trials relating to other cultivation practices, particularly effects of planting date, plant density and plant techniques must be increased.
  • Proactive work to determine the production of healthier oils (high oleic acid types) must be encouraged (see 2.8).

 

2.3

Programme: Plant nutrition
The fertilisation guidelines for growing canola in the Western Cape were revised by experts in May/June 2006 and the revision process was repeated in 2009/2010.

The most important studies to be implemented were identified as:

  • Nitrogen management, including:
    –    Quantity (levels)
    –    Scheduling
    –    Nitrogen carriers
    –    Nitrogen placement
    –    Nitrogen x rotation crops
    –    Nitrogen x cultivars
    –    Nitrogen x planting date
    –    Nitrogen x plant population
    –    Any combination or combinations of the above
  • Sulphur x nitrogen
  • Calcium x nitrogen
  • Phosphorus x potassium
  • Micro-elements

Due to limited manpower and facilities, only certain projects can be done.
 

 

 

2.3.1

Project: The nitrogen requirements of canola under irrigation
Researcher: Dr AA Nel
Institution: ARC-GCI

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the relationship between nitrogen supply and grain yield as well as grain quality of canola under irrigation to allow meaningful nitrogen fertilisation recommendations.
     

    Determine the nitrogen content of plants to prepare guidelines to identify nitrogen deficiencies early.
     

  • General
     

    Positive results were shown and a summary of the final report is available on the PRF web page / database.
     

    Apart from the method to determine nitrogen (N) requirements based on various levels of N application, as well as methods determining soil rendering, this is an alternative method to determine N requirements more accurately.

 

 

2.3.2

Project: Nitrogen levels at different planting dates (Planting dates as separate trials)
Researcher: Mr DJ Hanekom
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objective
     

    Determine the effects of different levels of nitrogen on canola grain yield and quality at different planting dates on dry land in the Western Cape.
     

  • General
     

    Project will not continue because researcher resigned. Project will be addressed as soon as the necessary manpower is available.

 

 

2.3.3

Project: The effects of nitrogen placement for different row widths and nitrogen levels on grain yield and grain quality of canola in the Western Cape
Researcher: Prof GA Agenbag
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Optimal canola production based on the optimal relationship between nitrogen placement, row width and nitrogen levels in the Western Cape.
     

    Determine norms for soil nitrogen content as guideline for nitrogen fertilisation.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2004.
     

    Interesting results were shown. These are available on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.3.4

Project: The effects of nitrogen quantities for nitrogen scheduling in the production of canola in the Swartland
Researcher: Mr N Raath
Institution: Kynoch Kunsmis

  • Objective
     

    Promotion of canola production by determining the optimal relationship between nitrogen quantities and nitrogen scheduling in the Swartland.
     

  • General
     

    Project terminated after one year due to company policy.
    Should be continued as soon as manpower is available.

 

 

2.3.5

Project: The effect of nitrogen (N) level on sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) levels in canola production in sandy soils of the Swartland
Researcher: Mr N Raath
Institution: Kynoch Kunsmis

  • Objective
     

    Promotion of canola production on sandy soils of the Swartland by determining the optimal re­lation­ship between N x S x Ca.
     

  • General
     

    Project terminated after one year due to company policy.
    Should be continued as soon as manpower is available.
     

    No results available.

 

 

2.3.6

Project: Nitrogen fertilisation of canola based on nitrogen mineralisation and leaching
Researcher: Prof GA Agenbag
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objective
     

    Determine nitrogen rendering of soil and supplementation for optimal grain production.
     

  • General
     

    Summary of progress report available on the PRF web page / database.
     

    Final report was published in 2011 and also included on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.3.7

Project: Sulphur fertilisation requirements of canola in the production areas of the Western Cape
Researcher: Prof GA Agenbag
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the sulphur (S) requirements for canola grain production in the Western Cape.
     

    Determine the effects of sulphur fertilisation on the oil and protein content of canola grain.
     

  • General
     

    Good progress and relationship between S and N clearly shown.
     

    Progress reports available on the PRF web page / database.
     

    Final report was published in 2011 and also included on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.3.8

Project: Sulphur (S) and Nitrogen (N) fertilisation of canola
Researcher: Prof GA Agenbag
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the effects of various sulphur and nitrogen levels and times of application, the interaction between chemicals, and canola grain yield.
     

    Determine the effects of various nitrogen and sulphur carriers on the canola grain yield in the Western Cape.
     

    Determine S and N levels on quality of canola in the Western Cape.
     

  • General
     

    Trial started in 2012.
     

    Interesting results were observed in the first season.
     

    Project continues.
     

    Results are published in Canola Focus and were included on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.3.9

Project: Boron requirements of canola
Researcher: Prof GA Agenbag, Ms E Kempen
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objective
     

    Determine the effects of various levels of Boron on the growth, development and grain yield of canola.
     

  • General
     

    Trial started in 2012.
     

    Waiting for results and progress report.

 

 

2.3.10

Summary

  • Project 2.3.4 consists of two sections involving nitrogen levels applied according to a fixed establishment level, and those applied after different establishment levels.
  • It is important to note that there is no crisis in terms of the fertilisation of canola in the Western Cape. The fertilisation guidelines offer a good departure point. Additional work on identified subjects may improve and refine the guidelines.
  • Study tours to Australia (2006, 2008 and 2010) and Canada (2011) support the planning relating to the list of subjects prepared in 2006 as the most important subjects.

 

2.4

Programme: Weed control

Canola is very sensitive to broadleaf weed killers used for crops like wheat. There are indications that sulphenyl urea, in particular, when not applied strictly according to indications for use, causes significant damage to crops, including canola.

Where rye grass is a problem, triazine resistant canola is used as a rotation crop. In such cases, rye grass is controlled using simazine in the canola phase.

There are indications that more dense canola plant populations are effective in suppressing weed growth and development.

Currently the following projects are under way:
 

 

 

2.4.1

Project: The effects of weed killers before and after germination on new wheat and canola cultivars (Nov/PP/B4)
Researcher: Mr MI Ferreira
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objective
     

    Identify sensitivity of canola cultivars to weed killers.
     

  • General
     

    Results are available at the DAWC.

 

 

2.4.2

Project: Manage weed killer resistance in the Western Cape
Researcher: Dr PJ Pieterse
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Identify cases of weed killer resistance.
     

    Weed sensitivity to weed killers.
     

    Effects of crop rotation on weeds, particularly rye grass.
     

  • General
     

    Results are available on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.4.3

Project: Canola plant density: Effect on the suppression of weeds and canola yields in the Swartland and Southern Cape
Researcher: Dr PJ Pieterse
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the effect of plant density on the suppression of weeds (bio-mass) for various canola cultivars in the Swartland and Southern Cape.
     

    Determine the effect of plant density on the development, growth and yield of various canola cul­tivars.
     

  • General
     

    Trial started in 2012 by preparing the area to be planted.
     

    Waiting for results after 2013 season. Results will be made available on the PRF web page / data­base.

 

 

2.4.4

Project: Chemical options for weed control in GM-canola cultivars
Researcher: Dr PJ Pieterse
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the efficacy of different glufosinate ammonium dosages on wild radish and ryegrass seedlings in a pot experiment.
     

    Determine the efficacy and residual action of glufosinate ammonium, glyphosate, atrazine and imazamox on weeds in Western Cape.
     

  • General
     

    Trial started in 2012.
     

    Waiting for results in 2013.

 

 

2.4.5

Summary

  • The cultivation guidelines as defined in the Canola Production Manual provide clear re&shcommendations about weed control for canola in the Western Cape. These also include a comprehensive re­com­men­dation on handling weed killer resistance. New information is published in Canola Focus from time to time.
  • Close co-operation is maintained between the HRAC committee of Crop Life SA and the Cape Working Group.
  • Based on recommendations of three study tour reports the Board of the PRF decided that trials with GM canola cultivars should be given high priority in South Africa. Thereafter, the registration of GM canola and its cultivation must be promoted in South Africa. It is essential to obtain alternative chemical sub­stances to handle weed problems and limit any build-up of resistance. This will promote the expansion of areas under canola.
  • The effects of cultivation practices (plant density etc.) on weed control in canola production must be investigated (see report: Study Tour to Canada 2011).
  • The PRF will support new research on weed control in canola.

 

2.5

Programme: Plant diseases
The most important diseases affecting canola are blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) and sclerotinia rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Fortunately, neither of these is currently of importance for canola production in South Africa. However, recent observations have shown that both diseases pose a significant potential danger in the Western Cape. As a result, the available capacity (manpower and equipment) at the Department of Agriculture, Western Cape and ARC-PPRI at Stellenbosch was tasked with addressing diseases both above and below ground level. Certain projects are under way and others are planned for the near future.
 

 

 

2.5.1

Project: Chemical seed treatment of canola and lupins for the control of seedling diseases and insects
Researchers: Prof GA Agenbag, Dr SC Lamprecht
Institutions: Stellenbosch University and ARC-PPRI

  • Objectives
     

    Determine the effects of seedling diseases and early insect damage to establishment, survival and production of canola at different plant densities and row widths:
     

    Determine the efficacy of chemical seed treatments for canola and lupins.
     

    Determine the effects of climatic factors on the efficacy of chemical seed treatment and possible phytotoxic effects on canola.
     

    The development of a seed treatment strategy for canola and lupin production in the Swartland and Rûens.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2005. Positive results were obtained.
     

    Syngenta registered the agent 'Cruiser' for seed treatment of canola.
     

    Results available on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.5.2

Project: Characterisation of Rhizoctonia on canola and lupin in crop rotation systems in the Western Cape Province
Researcher: Dr SC Lamprecht
Institution: ARC-PPRI

  • Objectives
     

    Characterise Rhizoctonia spp. associated with canola in crop rotation systems at Tygerhoek trial farm:
     

    Determine the effects of different crop rotation systems on the incidence of Rhizoctonia spp. and determine which system reduces the incidence.
     

  • General
     

    Results published and particulars available on the PRF web page.

 

 

2.5.3

Summary

  • Blackleg increased significantly in the 2003 season in the Western Cape, but not thereafter.
  • There is a definite difference in blackleg resistance between cultivars.
  • The canola elite trials and cultivar evaluation trials must be monitored for the incidence of blackleg.
  • Sclerotinia poses potential danger for canola in the Western Cape. Research on this disease should be conducted proactively.
  • Syngenta registered an agent for seed treatment of canola.
  • The scope of the incidence of other diseases will determine any undertaking of further projects. For the current situation there is sufficient information in the Canola Production Manual on canola diseases in the Western Cape.

 

2.6

Programme: Insect control
Various insects could constitute a pest for canola. The most important are:
 

 

 

Red legged earth mite

=   Halotydeus destructor

Winter grain mite

=   Penthaleus major

Cabbage aphid

=   Blevicoryne brassicae

Lucerne flea

=   Sminthurus viridis

Diamondback moth

=   Plutella xylostella

Cotton pink boll worm

=   Helicoverph spp. (Heliothus spp.)
 

 

 

From time to time, other soil insects such as cutworm, grain worm, snout beetle, false threadworms, black mealie bug, snails, isopods etc. could also cause problems.
 

 

 

2.6.1

Project: Insects and other canola pests
Researcher: Dr GD Tribe
Institution: ARC-PPRI

  • Objectives
     

    Identify the most important soil insects for canola.
     

    Identify other important pests.
     

    Evaluate control measures.
     

  • General
     

    Interesting results were shown relating to the control of snails and isopods for canola.
     

    Summaries available on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.6.2

Project: Developing a biological control agent for molluscs (slugs and snails) in South Africa
Researcher: Dr AP Malan
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    Identification of nematodes that may serve as slug and snail parasites.
     

    Production of non-plant parasitic nematodes.
     

  • General
     

    Trial started in 2013.
     

    Progress to be published.

 

 

2.6.3

Summary

  • Cultivation guidelines as defined in the Canola Production Manual provide information about good control measures and threshold values for insects that live above ground.
  • The diamond back moth easily develops resistance to chemical agents. Although this has not yet happened in South Africa it is essential for experts to prepare an integrated control strategy and to distribute this knowledge to producers.
  • Guidelines for the control of snails and isopods using bait was prepared and distributed to producers. It was also published in Canola Focus.
  • Results available on the PRF web page / database.

 

2.7

Programme: Harvesting techniques

There are two main harvesting types: direct harvesting as opposed to swathing, picking up and threshing.

Canola is very sensitive to seed loss. The correct moisture percentage for each technique is extremely important to keep grain loss as low as possible while maintaining high quality (oil and protein content).
 

 

 

2.7.1

Project: The efficacy of dessication, measured in terms of yield and quality, as an alternative to swathing for harvesting canola
Researcher: Mr DJ Hanekom
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objective
     

    Determine the effects of different harvesting techniques and harvesting dates (moisture percentages) on grain yield and grain quality of canola.
     

  • General
     

    Project was terminated because researcher resigned. It should be continued when possible.
     

    A new project was registered (see 2.7.2).

 

 

2.7.2

Project: Determine grain loss of canola during ripening and harvesting in the Western Cape
Researcher: Dr J Strauss
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objective
     

    Determine the effects of different harvesting techniques and harvesting dates (moisture percentages) on grain yield and grain quality of canola.
     

  • General
     

    Project was finalised in 2010. Results show significant losses due to current harvesting techniques. Additional research is essential for maintaining grain yield per surface area and improving the economic competitiveness of canola.
     

    Results are shown on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.7.3

Summary

  • Harvesting loss is one of the aspects that most limits canola production in South Africa and research on this subject is considered a high priority.

 

2.8

Programme: Quality aspects

Canola seed contains between 36 and 46 % high quality oil and between 20 and 24% protein. Literature shows clearly that the planting date in western Australia has a significant effect on composition, with the oil content in particular being dramatically affected.

In South Africa no research has been conducted on this subject, which clearly requires thorough research.

The proportion of green grain indicates the stage of maturity. Immature grain could affect it's suitability for oil pressing, but initial indications are that it has a negligible effect on animal feed.

The following aspects require more attention:

  • Influence of planting date (environmental factors like temperature, etc.) on oil and protein content.
  • Factors causing green grain.
  • Effects of sulphur (S) on erucic acid and glucosinolate content at local sites.
  • Growing canola with healthier oil content (high oleic acid). The so-called Monola cultivar must be researched. These cultivars must be tested for grain yield and oil quality.

Although canola has the lowest saturated fatty acid content of all plant oils, it could be reduced further by growing high oleic acid cultivars.

Currently there are various Monola cultivars available at Nu Seed in Australia. These cultivars must be tested locally for grain yield and oil content, fatty acid composition, heat tolerance, stability, smell and taste.

 

2.9

Programme: Economic aspects

The economic effects of canola production should be included in every project as they have been in the three crop rotation projects (see 2.2.6, 2.2.7 and 2.2.8).

Two projects provide information on the profitability of canola compared to other crops such as wheat, barley or lupins, to determine the comparable economics of canola production at farm level.
 

 

 

2.9.1

Project: The income and cost estimates (Combuds) for canola and other crops in the respective growing areas in the Western and Southern Cape
Researchers: Mr SG Ferreira, Mr JSG Joubert
Institution: Protein Research Foundation

  • Objectives
     

    Prepare comparable income and cost estimates for canola, lupins, wheat and barley. Each producer may determine estimates by inserting own figures.
     

    Annual update of income and cost estimates.
     

  • General
     

    Useful information is available and is shown on the PRF web page / database.
     

    A do-it-yourself (DIY) facility was created on the PRF web page. It is being used by interested parties.
     

    If the average canola grain yield could be increased by only 250 kg per hectare, canola could com­pete with wheat in most growing areas.
     

    Canola has been established and promoted as a cash crop in its own right.

 

 

2.9.2

Project: The economic contribution of canola as a rotation crop in different crop rotation systems on a typical farming unit in the Swartland and Southern Cape
Researcher: Dr WH Hoffman
Institution: Stellenbosch University

  • Objectives
     

    To apply the available crop rotation results of respective crop rotation trials to whole-farming, using typical farm simulation modelling.
     

    To evaluate the financial effects of the optimal inclusion of canola in a crop rotation system in a whole-farming model.
     

  • General
     

    Positive results have been obtained. Although canola itself remains less profitable than wheat, the benefits of canola is overwhelmingly favourable and a crop rotation system achieves up to R371.00 per hectare more than a monoculture wheat system.
     

    Results available on the PRF web page / database.
     

    Economic studies about the contribution of canola in crop rotation systems must be expanded as soon as new technologies, such as hybrid cultivars with higher yields and GM canola, become available.

 

 

2.9.3

Project: Relative profitability of basic crop rotation systems: Swartland
Researcher: Mr SG Ferreira
Institution: Protein Research Foundation

  • Objectives
     

    Determine relative profitability of various crop rotation systems compared to a wheat monoculture system.
     

    Determine the most profitable crop rotation system excluding systems that include medics and the livestock factor.
     

  • General
     

    Study was done in 2012.
     

    Summary of results is available on the PRF web page / database.
     

    Of the five crop rotation systems, the system that involved growing canola annually on 25% of the farm surface, showed the best results over a period of ten years.
     

    If necessary, the study may be repeated in other areas.

 

 

2.9.4

Project: Comparison of profitability of crop rotation systems with and without canola in the Groblersdal / Brits vicinity
Researcher: Mr SG Ferreira
Institution: Protein Research Foundation

  • Objective
     

    Prepare financial results for a crop rotation system with and without canola, including the impact of this on a farm.
     

  • General
     

    The project started in 2013.
     

    Information shows that incorporation of canola offers a higher gross margin for the farming enterprise.

The study should be continued with more producers as participants.

 

2.10

Programme: Animal utilisation of products
Canola may be used in both full-fat and oilcake form for animal feeds. The full-fat form provides between 20 and 24% protein and about 36 to 46% oil, while the oilcake contains about 35% protein and less than 1% oil.
 

 

 

2.10.1

Project: Application of feed enzymes to improve the utilisation of sweet lupins, full-fat canola and canola oilcake in diets for chickens and pigs
Researcher: Dr TS Brand
Institution: Department of Agriculture, Western Cape

  • Objective
     

    To improve the value of locally produced lupins, full-fat canola and canola oilcake for monogastrics and to test techniques for improving its utilisation.
     

  • General
     

    Project completed in 2005.
     

    Results summarised on the PRF web page / database, but also available at DAWC.

 

 

2.10.2

Project: Determine nutritional value of canola and lupins in poultry and pig feeds
Researcher: Prof RM Gous
Institution: University of KwaZulu-Natal

  • Objective
     

    Evaluation of various forms and inclusion levels of canola and lupins in poultry and pig feeds.
     

  • General
     

    Project was completed in 2002.
     

    Norms were established for values and inclusion levels.
     

    Results were published and were included on the PRF web page / database.

 

 

2.10.3

Summary

  • Dr Brand's previous work includes
     

    Guidelines for the ideal inclusion levels of sweet lupins, full-fat canola and canola oilcake in broiler chicken, piglet and growing pig feeds.
     

    List of concentrations of the most important nutrients and feeding factors in locally produced lupins, canola, faba beans and narbon beans.
     

    The effects of the inclusion of canola, lupins and canola oilcake in feed on the fatty acid profiles of broilers and pigs.
     

    Use of canola stubble as grazing for sheep.
     

  • General
     

    Summaries of results available on the PRF web page / database.
     

    Information also available at DAWC.
     

  • Other work includes
     

    The effects of canola seed, cotton seed and rolled canola seed on productivity of first lactation Holstein heifers.
    Researcher: Dr LJ Erasmus
    Institute: ARC Institute of Animal Feed and Animal Products
     

  • General
     

    Results were summarised and are available on the PRF web page / database.

3.

MANPOWER PLAN

 

The PRF does not employ its own researchers but instead makes use of institutes such as the following to implement research projects:

  • ARC Institute
  • Stellenbosch University
  • University of KwaZulu-Natal
  • Department of Agriculture, Western Cape (DAWC)

The PRF uses the services of contractors for technology transfer. These contractors transfer knowledge on a part-time basis.

The Super-canola competitions are successful in transferring information on canola production to producers.

A PRF contractor promotes the production of canola by means of the Super-canola competition, strip demonstrations and direct transfer of information. Information days are also presented.

4.

PROMOTION: CANOLA PRODUCTION

Articles on different topics relating to canola production are made available quarterly, published in Canola Focus and distributed to producers. Reports are published in Grain SA, Landbouweekblad, Farmer's Weekly and Landbouburger, but also announced as part of various radio programmes.

The PRF also uses events such as Information Days to promote canola. Local and international experts and researchers present papers at such events. Regular travel is undertaken for study purposes, to keep up to date with the latest available technology. These study tours are undertaken with the support and funding of the PRF.

A new Canola Production Manual was finalised in 2008 and distributed as hard copy and in CD format within the canola industry. A canola production calendar was published in 2010 and distributed to producers.

The Canola Working Group meets on various occasions each year to discuss matters of common interest. Representatives of the entire industry are invited to attend such meetings.

The PRF web page (www.proteinresearch.net) is used to make available new information on canola production, and is accessible to all.

Over the past six years, more than 70% of the local oilcake demand and more than 50% of the local oil demand has been met through importation. There is certainly not an over-production of a crop such as canola in South Africa, so production expansion is strongly recommended.

5.

SUMMARY
 

 

5.1

Because of the limited research capacity and expertise in South Africa the PRF has had to obtain assistance and expertise from other countries. Two visits to South Africa, that of Mr Trent Potter (President: AOF) in August 2010 and the visit of Phil Thomas (Brassica Corp. Ltd, Canada) in September 2012, were of great value. This avenue for increasing our knowledge of canola production should be expanded.
 

 

5.2

Currently the PRF contributes funds for 10 canola research projects. Because of the significant deterioration of research capacity there is a limited demand for projects.
 

 

5.3

The Technology Plan is aimed at promoting canola production, now particularly in the winter rainfall area (dry land).
 

 

5.4

In terms of cultivar development, the following applies:

  • Significant attention is being paid to the evaluation of cultivars available in South Africa.
  • The development of a local breeding programme is currently not justified due to the scope of the industry.
  • The development of a germ plasm bank is therefore also not required.

 

5.5

Cultivation practices should enjoy more attention. Aspects such as the methods of establishment, plant population density, planting date, weed control and crop rotation require more research.
 

 

5.6

Fertilisation of canola enjoys considerable attention currently. If all priorities mentioned in 2.3 are attended to, the most important demands will be covered.
 

 

5.7

Weed control, particularly chemical weed control, for canola cultivation is essential. The introduction of GM canola, to make available alternative chemical control measures, is considered a priority (see page 10 – Genetically Modified Canola). GM canola could contribute to make canola more competitive compared to other crops.
 

 

5.8

The following diseases pose a danger for canola production in the Western Cape:

Blackleg

=   Leptosphaeria maculans

Sclerotinia rot

=   Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Soil-borne diseases such as Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

In terms of general soil-borne diseases, a seed treatment agent was tested and registered for use on canola in South Africa.
 

 

5.9

The Canola Production Manual provides information on good control measures and threshold values for insects that live above ground and feed on canola.

Problems with soil insects and pests like snails, isopods and others are researched in project 2.6.1 and 2.6.6.

The diamondback moth poses a significant potential danger as it easily develops resistance to chemical control. An integrated control strategy is therefore essential and should be available to producers to prevent the possible problems.
 

 

5.10

Canola harvesting techniques should be investigated further.
 

 

5.11

Factors affecting canola quality and the quality itself could enjoy more attention. Aspects that are of particularly importance are:

  • Effects of planting date (environmental factors such as temperature etc.) on oil and protein content of canola seed.
  • Factors leading to green grain.
  • Effects of sulphur (S) on erucic acid and glucosinolate content, as well as yield.
  • Production of healthier canola oil, such as high oleic acid canola.

Although canola oil is one of the healthiest of all plant oils it could be improved. Such cultivars are available in Australia and should be evaluated locally.
 

 

5.12

The economics of canola production needs further investigation. See projects 2.9.1 to 2.9.4.
 

 

5.13

Utilisation of canola and canola products for animal feeds is always important.

  • Projects 2.10.1 and 2.10.2 provide useful information about this.
  • Work was done about the use of canola stubble for grazing (sheep). Favourable results were shown.
  • Work done by various institutes on canola grain showed that canola in both forms (full-fat and oilcake) may be included in feeds, with favourable results.

 

5.14

The PRF makes use of researchers at various institutes (ARC, universities, Departments of Agriculture and private companies).

The decline in the number of researchers at ARC is a strain on the research programmes. Assistance from other countries is a consideration.
 

 

5.15

Over-production of canola is not a possibility as more than half the local demand for oilcake and cooking oil is being imported.

The possibility of using canola for biodiesel production is being researched and it could lead to significant expansion of areas planted to canola and therefore a significant increase in the availability of oilcake for animal feed purposes. These programmes must be sustainable.
 

 

5.16

This PRF Development Plan for canola indicates our vision of the most essential work to be done and work that should be done to support, expand and sustain canola production in South Africa. Other subjects will be considered for funding, based on merit.
 

 

5.17

Work that should enjoy attention first includes:
 

 

 

5.17.1

Availability of new cultivars, particularly aimed at higher grain yield (hybrid cultivars).
 

 

 

5.17.2

Improved harvesting techniques and reduction of losses.
 

 

 

5.17.3

Monitoring of blackleg.
 

 

 

5.17.4

Introducing GM canola is a high priority.



 
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